米国心理学会(American Psychological Association)が発行しているPublication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed. (2011)を久しぶりに読み直しました。
また、本学会の編集スタイルは、原則的に米国心理学会（American Psychological Association, APA）が発行している『Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed.』（2010）／『APA論文作成マニュアル第2版』〔2011、医学書院〕に準拠する。
タイトルではmethod, results, a study of…, an experimental investigation of…といったありきたりの単語(情報量の低い単語)を使うな。略語を使うな。12ワード以下にしろ。
Titles are commonly indexed and complied in numerous reference works. Therefore, avoid words that serve no useful purpose; they increase length and can mislead indexers. For example, the words method and results do not normally appear in a title, nor should such terms as A Study of or An Experimental Investigation of. Occasionally a term such as a research synthesis or a meta-analysis or fMRI study of conveys important information for the potential reader and is included in the title. Avoid using abbreviations in a title; spelling out all terms helps ensure accurate, complete indexing of the article. The recommended length for a title is no more than 12 words. (p.23)
Write in clear and concise language. Use verbs rather than their noun equivalents and the active rather than the passive voice (e.g., investigated rather than an investigation of; The authors presented the results instead of Results were presented). Use the present tense to describe conclusions drawn or results with continuing applicability. (p.26)
「AとBとC」の表現。A・B・Cの中にコンマがある場合はセミコロンを使って A; B; and C と表現する。
Within a sentence, use commas to separate three or more elements that do not have internal commas; use semicolons to separate three or more elements that have internal commas.
We tested three groups: (a) low scorers, who scored fewer than 20 points; (b) moderate scorers, who scored between 20 and 50 points; and (c) high scorers, who scored more then 50 points. (p.64)
Another way to achieve continuity is through the use of transitional words. These words help maintain the flow of thought, especially when the material is complex or abstract. A pronoun that refers to a noun in the preceding sentence not only serves as a transition but also avoids repetition. Be sure the referent is obvious. Other transition devices are time links (then, next, after, while, since), cause-effect links (therefore, consequently, as a result), addition links (in addition, moreover, furthermore, similarly), and contrast links (but, conversely, nevertheless, however, although). (p.65)
Abruptness may result from sudden, unnecessary shifts in verb tense within the same paragraph or in adjacent paragraph. By using verb tenses consistently, you can help ensure smooth expression. Past tense (e.g., “Smith showed”) or present perfect tense (e.g., “researchers have shown”) is appropriate for the literature review and the description of the procedure if the discussion is of past events. Stay within the chosen tense. Use past tense (e.g., “anxiety decreased significantly”) to describe the results. Using the present tense (e.g., “the results of Experiment 2 indicate”) to discuss implications of the results and to present the conclusions. By reporting conclusions in the present tense, you allow readers to join you in deliberating the matter at hand. (pp.65-6)
based on the fact that → because
at the present time → now
for the purpose of → for もしくは to
the present study → this study
several students who completed → several students completed (p.67)
they were both alike
a total of 68 participants
four different groups saw
instructions, which were exactly the same as those used
has been previously found
small in size
one and the same
in close proximity
very close to significance
period of time
the reason is because (p.67)
文頭でimportantly, more importantly, interestingly, firstlyを使うな。
Some of the more common introductory adverbial phrases are importantly, more importantly, interestingly, and firstly. Although importantly is used widely, whether its adverbial usage is proper is debatable. Both importantly and interestingly can often be recast to enhance the message of a sentence or simply be omitted without a loss of meaning. (p.82)
Correct: More important, the total amount of available long-term memory activation, and not the rate of spreading activation, drives the rate and probability of retrieval.
Correct: Expressive behavior and autonomic nervous system activity also have figured importantly…
Incorrect: More importantly, the total amount of available long-term memory activation, and not the rate of spreading activation, drives the rate and probability of retrieval.
Incorrect: Interestingly, the total amount of available long-term memory activation, and not the rate of spreading activation, drives the rate and probability of retrieval.
Correct:First, we hypothesized that the quality of the therapeutic alliance would be rated higher…
Incorrect:Firstly, we hypothesized that the quality of the therapeutic alliance would be rated higher…
Although writing only in short, simple sentences produces choppy and boring prose, writing exclusively in long, involved sentences results in difficult, sometimes incomprehensible material. Varied sentence length helps readers maintain interest and comprehension. When involved concepts require long sentences, the components should proceed logically. (p.68)
Avoid colloquial expressions (e.g., write up for report), which diffuse meaning. (p.68)
this → this test
that → that trial
these → these participants
those → those reports
Pronouns confuse readers unless the referent for each pronoun is obvious; readers should not have to search previous text to determine the meaning of the term. Pronouns such as this, that, these, and those can be troublesome when they refer to something or someone in a previous sentence. Eliminate ambiguity by writing, for example, this test, that trial, these participants, and those reports. (p.68)
The authors reviewed the literature → We reviewed the literature. (p.69)
Rat couples (cage mates) were allowed to forage together. → Pairs of rats (cage mates) were allowed to forage together
The chimps were tested daily. … Sheba was tested unrestrained in an open testing area, which was her usual context for training and testing. (p.80)
Incorrect: The community program was persuaded to allow five of the observers to become tutors.
Correct: The staff for the community program was persuaded to allow five of the observers to become tutors.
An experiment cannot attempt to demonstrate, control unwanted variables, or interpret findings, nor can tables or figures compare (all of these can, however, show or indicate). Use a pronoun or an appropriate noun as the subject of these verbs. I or we (meaning the author or authors) can replace the experiment. (p.69)
For clarity, restrict your use of we to refer only to yourself and your coauthors (use I if you are the sole author of the paper). Broader use of we may leave your readers wondering to whom you are referring; instead, substitution an appropriate noun or clarify your usage.
Incorrect: We usually classify birdsong on the basis of frequency and temporal structure of the elements.
Correct: Researchers usually classify birdsong on the basis of frequency and temporal structure of the elements
To describe age groups, give a specific age range (“ages 65-83 years”) instead of a broad category (“over 65 years”). (p.71)
「老人」はelder, seniorという単語を使わずに、older adultsと書く
12歳以下はgirl, boy, 13歳から17歳まではyoung man, young woman, female adolescent, male adolescent, 18歳以上はwoman, man。老人はthe elderly, elderly people, elderly personもしくはseniorという単語を使わず、older adultsとするのが望ましい。(p.76)
Asian American → Chinese Americans
Hispanic American → Mexican American (p.71)
black → Black
white → White
African Americans and Whites Asian Americans and Black Americans
Asian-American participants → Asian American participants (p.75)
gays and lesbians → gay men and lesbians (p.71)
the gays → gay men
the elderly → older adults
the amnesiacs → amnesic patients
the schizophrenics → people diagnosed with schizophrenia (p.72)
homosexualという単語を使わない。代わりにlesbians, gay men, bisexual men, and bisexual womenなどの表現をする
The terms lesbians, gay men, bisexual men, and bisexual women are preferable to homosexual when one is referring to people who identify this way. Lesbian, gay, and bisexual refer primarily to identities and to the culture and communities that have developed among people who share those identities. As such, the terms lesbians, gay men, and bisexual individuals are more accurate than homosexual. Furthermore, the term homosexuality has been and continues to be associated with negative stereotypes, pathology, and the reduction of people’s identities to their sexual behavior. Gay can be interpreted broadly, to include men and women, or more narrowly, to include only men. (pp.74-5)
Incorrect: When an individual conducts this kind of self-appraisal, he is a much stronger person.
Correct: When an individual conducts this kind of self-appraisal, that person is much stronger.
Incorect: A therapist who is too much like his client can lose his objectivity.
Correct: Therapists who are too much like their clients can lose their objectivity.
Incorrect: A researcher must apply for his grant by September 1.
Correct: A researcher must apply for the grant by September 1.
Incorrect: The researcher must avoid letting his own biases and expectations influence the interpretation of the results.
Correct: The researcher must avoid letting biases and expectations influence the interpretation of the results.
※heの代わりにhe or she, she or he, he/she, (s)heを使うことはあまり勧められない(たまにであればよい)。heとsheを交互に使う事も勧められない。(pp.73-4)
「障害者」は「～の障害を持った人」(person with…, people with…)という表現を使え
autisticは若い人であればyouth with autistic、the retardedはpeople with intellectual disabilitiesと書く。
The overall principle for “nonhandicapping” language is to maintain the integrity (worth) of all individuals as human beings. Avoid language that objectifies a person by her or his condition (e.g., autistic, neurotic), that uses excessive and negative labels (e.g., AIDS victim, brain damaged), or that can be regarded as a slur (e.g., cripple, invalid). Use people-first language, and do not focus on the individual’s disabling or chronic condition (e.g., person with paraplegia, youth with autism). Also use people-first language to describe groups of people with disabilities. For instance, say people with intellectual disabilities in contrast to the retarded. (p.76)
Verbs are vigorous, direct communicators. Use the active rather than the passive voice, and select tense or mood carefully. (p.77)
Incorrect: The survey was conducted in a controlled setting.
Correct: We conducted the survey in a controlled setting.
e.g., The speakers were attached to either side of the chair./ The President was shot.
Use who for human beings; use that or which for nonhuman animals and for things. (p.79)
Incorrect: The students that completed the task successfully were rewarded.
Correct: The students who completed the task successfully were rewarded.
That versus which. That clauses (called restrictive) are essential to the meaning of the sentence… Which clauses can merely add further information (nonrestrictive) or can be essential to the meaning (restrictive) of the sentence. APA prefers to reserves which for non-restrictive clauses and use that in restrictive clauses.
Restrictive: The cards that worked well in the first experiment were not useful in the second experiment. [Only those cards that worked well in the first experiment were not useful in the second; prefer that.]
Nonrestrictive: The cards, which worked well in the first experiment, were not useful in the second experiment. [The second experiment was not appropriate for the cards.]
Consistent use of that for restrictive clauses and which for nonrestrictive clauses, which are set off with commas, will help make your writing clear and precise. (p.83)
Misplaced modifiers. Because of their placement in a sentence, misplaced modifiers ambiguously or illogically modify a word. You can eliminate misplaced modifiers by placing an adjective or an adverb as close as possible to the word it modifies.
Correct: Using this procedure, the investigator tested the participants.
Correct: The investigator tested the participants who were using the procedure.
Incorrect: The investigator tested the participants using this procedure. [The sentence is unclear about whether the investigator or the participants used this procedure.] (p.81)
Many writers have trouble with the word only. Place only next to the word or phrase it modifies.
Correct: These data provide only a partial answer.
Incorrect: These data only provide a partial answer. (p.81)
Dangling modifiers. Dangling modifiers have no referent in the sentence. Many of these result from the use of the passive voice. By writing in the active voice, you can avoid many dangling modifiers. (p.81)
Correct: Using this procedure, I tested the participants. [I, not the participants, used the procedure.]
Incorrect: The participants were tested using this procedure. (p.81)
Correct: Mulholland and Williams (2000) found that this group performed better, a result that is congruent with those of other studies. [The result, not Mulholland and Williams, is congruent.”
Incorrect: Congruent with other studies, Mulholland and Williams (2000) found that this group performed better. (p. 82)
hopefullyをI hopeもしくはit is hopedという意味で使うな
Another adverb often misused as an introductory or transitional word is hopefully. Hopefully means “in a hopeful manner” or “full of hope”; hopefully should not be used to mean “I hope” or “it is hoped.”
Correct: I hope this not the case.
Incorrect: Hopefully, this is not the case. (p.83)
Use while to link events occurring simultaneously; otherwise, use although, and, or but in place of while.
Correct: Bragg (1965) found that participants performed well while listening to music.
While and since. Some style authorities accept the use of while and since when they do not refer strictly to time; however, words like these, with more than one meaning, can cause confusion. Because precision and clarity are the standards in scientific writing, restricting your use of while and since to their temporal meanings is helpful. The following examples illustrate the temporal meanings of these terms:
Correct: Although these findings are unusual, they are not unique.
Incorrect: While these findings are unusual, they are not unique.
Correct: The argument is purely philosophical, but the conclusion can also yield an empirical hypothesis, amenable to empirical investigation.
Incorrect: While the argument is purely philosophical, the conclusion can also yield an empirical hypothesis, amenable to empirical investigation.
Since is more precise when it is used to refer only to time (to mean “after that”); otherwise, replace it with because.
Correct: Several versions of the test have been developed since the test was first introduced. (pp.83-4)
Correct: Data for two participants were incomplete because these participants did not report for follow-up testing.
Incorrect: Data for two participants were incomplete since these participants did not report for follow-up testing. (p.84)
To enhance the reader’s understanding, present parallel ideas in parallel or coordinate form. Make certain that all elements of the parallelism are present before and after the coordinating conjunction (i.e., and, but, or, nor).
Correct: The results show that such changes could be made without affecting error rate and that latencies continued to decrease over time.
Incorrect: The results show that such changes could be made without affecting error rate and latencies continued to decrease over time. (p.84)
Between and and.
Correct: We recorded the difference between the performance of subjects who completed the first task and the performance of those who completed the second task.
Incorrect: We recorded the difference between the performance of subjects who completed the first task and the second task. (p.85)
[The difference is between the subjects’ performance, not between the performance and the task.]
Correct: between 2.5 and 4.0 years of age
Incorrect:between 2.5-4.0 years of age (p.85)
Both and and.
Correct: The names were difficult both to pronounce and to spell.
Incorrect: The names were both difficult to pronounce and spell.
Neither and nor; either and or.
Correct: Neither the responses to the auditory stimuli nor the responses to the tactile stimuli were repeated.
Incorrect: Neither the responses to the auditory stimuli nor to the tactile stimuli were repeated.
Correct: The respondents either gave the worst answer or gave the best answer.
orThe respondents gave either the worst answer or the best answer.
Incorrect: The respondents either gave the worst answer or the best answer. (pp.85-6)
Not only and but also.
Correct: It is surprising not only that pencil-and-paper scores predicted this result but also that all other predictors were less accurate.
Incorrect: It is not only surprising that pencil-and-paper scores predicted this result but also that all other predictors were less accurate.
「AとBとC」の表現。A, B and Cではなく A, B, and Cと書け
Correct: the height, width, or depth in a study by Stacy, Newcomb, and Bentler (1991)
Incorrect: in a study by Stacy, Newcomb and Bentler (1991) (p.88)
Cedar shavings covered the floor, and paper was available for shredding and nest building (p.89)
April 18, 1992, was the correct date.
April 1992 was the correct month. (p.89)
For example, Freud (1930/1961) wrote of two urges: an urge toward union with others and an egoistic urge toward happiness.
They have agreed on the outcome: Informed participants perform better than do uninformed participants. (p.90)
The author made one main point: No explanation that has been suggested so far answers all questions. (p.101)
to introduce a word or phrase used as an ironic comment, as slang, or as an invented or coined expression. Use quotation marks the first time the word or phrase is used; thereafter, do not use quotation marks.
Correct: the “good-outcome” variable … the good-outcome variable [no quotation marks after the initial usage]
Incorrect: the “good-outcome” variable … the “good-outcome” variable (p.91)
The term zero-base budgeting appeared frequently in the speech.
She compared it with meta-analysis, which is described in the next section.
95% Cls [-7.2, 4.3], [9.2, 12.4], and [-1.2, -0.5] (p.94)
スペルに不安があった時はMerriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary (2005)で正しいスペルを確認しろ
Webster’s Collegiateに目当ての単語が載っていない場合はWebster’s Third New International Dictionary (2002)で確認する。(p.96)
ハイフンとダッシュ(em dashとen dash)の前後にスペースを置くな
■ hyphen: Use no space before or after (e.g., trial-by-trial differently).
■ em dash: An em dash is longer than a hyphen or an en dash and is used to set off an element added to amplify or to digress from the main clause (e.g., Studies─published and unpublished─are included). Use no space before or after an em dash. If an em dash is not available on your keyboard, use two hyphens with no space before or after.
■ en dash: An en dash is longer and thinner than a hyphen yet shorter than an em dash and is used between words of equal weight in a compound adjective (e.g., Chicago-London flight). Type as an en dash or, if the en dash is not available on your keyboard, as a single hyphen. In either case, use no space before or after.
マイナス記号はen dashと同じ長さで、en dashより少し太く、横棒を少し高い位置に置け
A typeset minus sign is the same length as an en dash, but it is slightly thicker and slightly higher. If a minus sign is not available in your word-processing program, use a hyphen with a space on both sides (e.g., a – b). (p.97)
In his book, History of Pathology
The criticism of the article, “Attitudes Toward Mental Health Workers”
“Ultrasonic Vocalizations Are Elicited From Rat Pups”
“Memory in Hearing-Impaired Children: Implications for Vocabulary Development” (p.101
In titles of books and articles in reference lists, capitalize only the first word, the first word after a colon or em dash, and proper nouns. Do not capitalize the second word of a hyphenated compound.
Liu, D., Wellman, H. M., Tardif, T., & Sabagh, M. A. (2008). Theory of mind development in Chinese children: A meta-analysis of false-belief understanding across cultures and languages. Developmental Psychology, 44, 523-531. doi:10.1037/0012-16188.8.131.523
Cantor, A. B. (1996). Sample-size calculations for Cohen’s kappa. Psychologial Methods, 1, 150-153. doi:10.1037.1082-989X,1.2.150
Capitalize nouns followed by numerals or letters that denote a specific place in a numbered series.
On Day 2 of Experiment 4
during Trial 5, the no-delay group performed
as shown in Table 2, Figure 3B, and Chapter 4
Grant AG02726 from the National Institute on Aging
Exception: Do not capitalize nouns that denote common parts of books or tables followed by numerals or letters.
column 5 (p.103)
Words within the title of a book in text that would normally be italicized should be set in Roman type (this is referred to as reverse italicization)
Dreaming by the Book: Freud’s The Interpretation of Dreams and the History of the Psychoanalytic Movement (p.104)
Do not use italics for mere emphasis (Italics are acceptable if emphasis might otherwise be lost; in general, however, use syntax to provide emphasis.)
Incorrect: it is important to bear in mind that this process is not proposed as a stage theory of developments. (p.106)
To maximize clarity, use abbreviations sparingly. Although abbreviations are sometimes useful for long, technical terms in scientific writing, communication is usually garbled rather than clarified if, for example, an abbreviation is unfamiliar to the reader. (p.106)
Underuse. Abbreviations introduced on first mention of a term and used fewer than three times thereafter, particularly in a long paper, may be difficult for a reader to remember, and you probably serve the reader bet if you write them out each time. (p.107)
Deciding whether to abbreviate. In general, use an abbreviation only (a) if it is conventional and if the reader is more familiar with the abbreviation than with the complete form or (b) if considerable space can be save and cumbersome repetition avoided. In short, use only those abbreviations that will help you communicate with your readers. Remember, they have not had the same experience with your abbreviations as you have. (p.107)
Use the following standard Latin abbreviations only in parenthetical material; in non-parenthetical material, use the English translation of the Latin terms; in both cases, include the correct punctuation that accompanies the term:
i.e., that is,
e.g., for example,
, etc. , and so forth
vs. versus, against (p.108)
one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, 10, 11, 12, 13…
Use a zero before the decimal point with numbers that are less than 1 when the statistic can exceed 1.
Cohen’s d = 0.70
Do not use a zero before a decimal fraction when the statistic cannot be greater than 1 (e.g., correlations, proportions, and levels of statistical significance).
r(24) = -.43,
p = .028
Use a space between a symbol and the number to which it refers, except for measures of angles (e.g., degrees, minutes, and seconds)
When reporting confidence intervals, use the format 96% CI [LL, UL], where LL is the lower limit of the confidence interval and UL is the upper limit.
95% CIs [5.62, 8.31], [-2.43, 4.31], and [-4.29, -3.11], respectively (p117)
Space mathematical copy as you would space words: a+b=c is as difficult to read as wordswithoutspacing. Instead, type a + b = c. (p.118)
If the quotation comprises 40 or more words, display it in a freestanding block of text and omit the quotation marks. Start such a block quotation on a new line and indent the block about a half inch from the left margin (in the same position as a new paragraph). If there are additional paragraphs within the quotation, indent the first line of each an additional half inch. Double-space the entire quotation. At the end of a block quotation, cite the quoted source and the page or paragraph number in parentheses after the final punctuation mark. (p.171)
The first letter of the first word in a quotation may be changed to an uppercase or a lowercase letter. The punctuation mark at the end of a sentence may be changed to fit the syntax. Single quotation marks may be changed to double quotation marks and vice versa. Any other changes (e.g., italicizing words for emphasis or omitting words; see section 6.08) must be explicitly indicated. (p.172)
引用文の1文を省略するときは . . . 。2文以上の時は . . . .。
Use three spaced ellipsis points (. . .) within a sentence to indicate that you have omitted material from the original source. Use four points to indicate any omission between two sentences. The first point indicates the period at the end of the first sentence quoted, and the three spaced ellipsis points follow. Do not use ellipsis points at the beginning or end of any quotation unless, to prevent misinterpretation, you need to emphasize that the quotation begins or ends in midsentence. (pp.172-3
Use brackets, not parentheses, to enclose material such as an addition or explanation inserted in a quotation by some person other than the original author.
“They are studying, from an evolutionary perspective, to what extent [children’s] play is a luxury that can be dispensed with when there are too many other competing claims on the growing brain . . .” (Henig, 2008, p. 40). (p.173)
If you want to emphasize a word or words in a quotation, italicize the word or words. Immediately after the italicized words, insert within brackets the words emphasis added, that is, [emphasis added]. (p.173)
共著者の引用ルール。2人の時は常にどちらとも表記せよ。3人以上の時は最初だけ全員の名前を表記し、2回目以降は筆頭著者の名前の後は et al. と書け
When a work has two authors, cite both names every time the reference occurs in text. When a work has three, four, or five authors, cite all authors the first time the reference occurs; in subsequent citations, include only the surname of the first author followed by et al. (not italicized and with a period after al) and the year if it is the first citation of the reference within a paragraph. (p.175)
Kisangau, Lyaruu, Hosea, and Joseph (2007) found [Use as first citation in text.]
Kisangau et al. (2007) found [Use as subsequent first citation per paragraph thereafter.]
Kisangau et al. found [Omit year from subsequent citations after first nonparenthetical citation within a paragraph. Include the year in subsequent citations if first citation within a paragraph is parenthetical. (p.175)
共著者の最後の名前の前の and は丸カッコ内、テーブル、キャプション、参考文献では & と書け
Precede the final name in a multiple-author citation in running text by the word and. In parenthetical material, in tables and captions, and in the reference list, join the names by an ampersand (&):
as Kurtines and Szapocznik (2003) demonstrated
as has been shown (Joreskog & Sorbom, 2007) (p.175)
引用文を引用するときは引用後に (as cited in 著者名, 出版年) を表記せよ
Use secondary sources sparingly, for instance, when the original work is out of print, unavailable through usual sources, or not available in English. Give the secondary source in the reference list; in text, name the original work and give a citation for the secondary source. For example, if Allport’s work is cited in Nicholson and you did not read Allport’s work, list the Nicholson reference in the reference list. In the text, use the following citation:
Allport’s diary (as cited in Nicholson, 2003). (p.178)
APA requires that the reference list be double-spaced and that entries have a hanging indent. (p.180)
|Abbreviation||Book or public part|
|Rev. ed.||Revised edition|
|2nd ed.||second edition|
|Ed. (Eds.)||Editor (Editors)|
|p. (pp.)||page (pages)|
|Vol.||Volume (as in Vol. 4)|
|Vols.||Volumes (as in Vols. 1-4)|
|Tech. Rep.||Technical Report|
Although some volume numbers of books and journals are given in Roman numerals, APA journals use Arabic numerals (e.g., Vol. 3, not Vol. III) because they use less pace and are easier to comprehend than Roman numerals. A Roman numerals that is part of a title should remain Roman (e.g., Attention and Performance XIII). (p.180)
出版年がわからない文献は (n.d.) と表記せよ
If no date is available, write n.d. in parentheses. (p.185)